Quinone Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium/Sodium Ion Batteries
Organic electrode materials bring about new possibilities for the next generation green and sustainable lithium/sodium ion batteries (LIBs/SIBs) owing to their low cost, environmental benignity, renewability, flexibility, redox stability and structural diversity. However, electroactive organic compounds face many challenges in practical applications for LIBs/SIBs, such as high solubility in organic electrolytes, poor electronic conductivity, and low discharge potential as postive materials. Quinone organic materials are the most promising candidates as electrodes in LIBs/SIBs because of their high theoretical capacity, good reaction reversibility and high resource availability. While quinone electrode materials (QEMs) have so far received less attention in comparison with other organic electrode materials in secondary batteries. In this paper, an overview of the recent developments in the field of QEMs for LIBs/SIBs is provided, emphasizing on the modifications of the quinone compounds in solubility, electronic conductivity, and discharge plateaus. Finally, multifaceted modification approaches are analyzed, which can stimulate the practical applications of QEMs for LIBs/SIBs.