Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Nanoporous Metal Oxides toward Supercapacitor Applications: Progress and Prospects
Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have attracted significant attention for energy storage applications such as supercapacitors due to their good electrical conductivity, high electrochemical response (by providing Faradaic reactions), low manufacturing costs, and easy processability. Despite exhibiting these attractive characteristics, the practical applications of TMOs for supercapacitors are still relatively limited. This is largely due to their continuous Faradaic reactions, which can lead to major changes or destruction of their structure as well phase changes (in some cases) during cycling, leading to the degradation in their capacitive performance over time. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop new synthesis methods, which will readily provide stable porous architectures, controlled phase, as well as useful control over dimensions (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) of the metal oxides for improving their performance in supercapacitor applications. Since its discovery in late 1990s, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have influenced many fields of material science. In recent years, they have gained significant attention as precursors or templates for the derivation of porous metal oxide nanostructures and nanocomposites for next-generation supercapacitor applications. Even though these materials have widespread applications and have been widely studied in terms of their structural features and synthesis, it is still not clear how these materials will play an important role in the development of the supercapacitor field. In this review, we will summarize the recent developments in the field of MOF-derived porous metal oxide nanostructures and nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications. Furthermore, the current challenges along with the future trends and prospects in the application of these materials for supercapacitors will also be discussed.