Dirac spin-gapless semiconductors: promising platforms for massless and dissipationless spintronics and new (quantum) anomalous spin Hall effects
It is proposed that the new generation of spintronics should be ideally massless and dissipationless for the realization of ultra-fast and ultra-low-power spintronic devices. We demonstrate that the spin-gapless materials with linear energy dispersion are unique materials that can realize these massless and dissipationless states. Furthermore, we propose four new types of spin Hall effects that consist of spin accumulation of equal numbers of electrons and holes having the same or opposite spin polarization at the sample edge in Hall effect measurements, but with vanishing Hall voltage. These new Hall effects can be classified as (quantum) anomalous spin Hall effects. The physics for massless and dissipationless spintronics and the new spin Hall effects are presented for spin-gapless semiconductors with either linear or parabolic dispersion. New possible candidates for Dirac-type or parabolic-type spin-gapless semiconductors are proposed in ferromagnetic monolayers of simple oxides with either honeycomb or square lattices.