Terahertz broadband modulation in a biased BiFeO3/Si heterojunction
A new terahertz (THz) modulator based on bias-driven carrier conductivity change in a heterojunction was proposed. BiFeO3 film and silicon were selected as building blocks for fabricating the THz modulator. THz nonlinear transmission as a function of bias voltage was studied systematically. THz peak transmission as a function of bias shows a similar tendency as the current-voltage response of the heterojunction: the forward bias leads to the exponential enhancement of THz transmission, and in contrast, the reverse bias shows no observable changes in THz transmission. The modulation depth and modulation bandwidth of THz pulse can reach up to 42% and 1.0 THz with forward bias of 4.8 V, respectively. The observed bias dependent THz transmission in the BFO/Si heterojunction is well-interpreted by the proposed model: the diffused carriers across the heterojunction are localized in BFO thin film with applied forward bias. Our finding provides great potential for applications in designing all electrical broadband THz modulators.