The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N'-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g-1 at the current density of 25 mA g-1. The capacity of 119 mAh g-1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g-1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g-1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries.