Multifunctional CO3S4/graphene composites for lithium ion batteries and oxygen reduction reaction
Cobalt sulfide is a good candidate for both lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but low conductivity, poor cyclability, capacity fading, and structural changes hinder its applications. The incorporation of graphene into CO3S4 makes it a promising electrode by providing better electrochemical coupling, enhanced conductivity, fast mobility of ions and electrons, and a stabilized structure due to its elastic nature. With the objective of achieving high-performance composites, herein we report a facile hydrothermal process for growing CO 3S4 nanotubes (NTs) on graphene (G) sheets. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) verified that graphene dramatically increases the conductivity of the composites to almost twice that of pristine CO3S4. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the as-synthesized CO3S4/ G composites exhibit good cyclic stability and a high discharge capacity of 720 mAhg1 up to 100 cycles with 99.9% coulombic efficiency. Furthermore, the composites react with dissolved oxygen in the ORR by fourand two-electron mechanisms in both acidic and basic media with an onset potential close to that of commercial Pt/C. The stability of the composites is much higher than that of Pt/C, and exhibit high methanol tolerance. Thus, these properties endorse CO3S4/G composites as auspicious candidates for both LIBs and ORR. 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbHandCo.