Publication Details

Wang, X. (2015). The codes of matter and their applications. Science Bulletin, 60 (19), 1661-1673.


The elements in the periodic table are the building blocks used to form substances with different compositions. Nevertheless, it is the properties of substances that are decisive for their existence and practical applications. Searching for new class of materials with exotic properties has always been challenging because of the complexity of both the theoretical and the experimental approaches developed so far. Here, we propose that the three ubiquitous and paramount attributes of all existing matter charge (Q), spin (S) or rotational motion, and linear motion (K) can be used to account for the formation of different types of matter/materials and their properties that have been or will be known to us. The three attributes or original codes can produce six primary codes which can further produce another sixty codes. The physical meanings represented by each code are unlocked. The table consisting of the 60 codes is introduced as the table of properties of codes of matter. We demonstrate that these codes can be used as building blocks to form new properties and new materials. Many new types of quasiparticles and new classes of materials with exotic properties of Q, S and K are predicted. Their possible experimental realizations are proposed. The possible applications of the codes of matter in other fields such as elementary particles, photonics and chemistry are briefly discussed. We know that there should be more new materials and new electronic, spin and photonic states to be discovered, but we do not know what they are. The codes of matter clearly reveal to us how many and what they are and how easily we can recognize what they are. Experimental and theoretical exploration for new forms of matter, new quasiparticles, or new electronic and spin states, or new states of photon or properties of light, as well as macroscopic entities with exotic properties represented by the codes of matter, is imminent.

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