Graphene, a nanocarbon with exceptional physical and electronic properties, has the potential to be utilized in a myriad of applications and devices. However, this will only be achieved if scalable, processable forms of graphene are developed along with ways to fabricate these forms into material structures and devices. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistries suitable for the development of aqueous and organic solvent graphene dispersions and their use for the preparation of a variety of polymer composites, materials useful for the fabrication of graphene-containing structures and devices. Fabrication of the processable graphene dispersions or composites by printing (inkjet and extrusion) or spinning methods (wet) is reviewed. The preparation and fabrication of liquid crystalline graphene oxide dispersions whose unique rheologies allow the creation of graphene-containing structures by a wide range of industrially scalable fabrication techniques such as spinning (wet and dry), printing (ink-jet and extrusion) and coating (spray and electrospray) is also reviewed.