Channelled porous TiO2 synthesized with a water-in-oil microemulsion
Porous titanium dioxide synthesized with a bicontinuous surfactant template is a promising method that leads to a high active surface area electrode. The template used is based on a water/isooctane/dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate salt together with lecithin. Several parameters were varied during the synthesis to understand and optimize channel formation mechanisms. The material is patterned in stacked conical channels, widening towards the centre of the grains. The active surface area increased by 116 % when the concentration of alkoxide precursors was decreased and increased by 241 % when the template formation temperature was decreased to 10 °C. Increasing the oil phase viscosity tends to widen the pore aperture, thus decreasing the overall active surface area. Changing the phase proportions alters the microemulsion integrity and disrupts channel formation.