The ultrafast carrier dynamics of the multiferroic BiFeO3 film in a broad temperature range is investigated using optical pump-probe spectroscopy. The photoexcited electrons release their energy with optical phonons emission through electron-phonon coupling in about 1 ps. The following intermediate process is identified as dynamical spin-lattice coupling in several picoseconds. Furthermore, the peak values of the optical reflectivity and the time constants of carrier relaxation channels show significant changes while the temperature varies from 137.5 K to around 195 K, this aligns with the previously reported hidden phase transition. Our study demonstrates that ultrafast spectroscopy is a sensitive method to look into the dynamical interactions among the on-site high-energy electrons accumulated in the p conduction band of Bi, coherent optical phonon, as well as the spin degree of freedom. These features play crucial roles in the characterization of phase transitions.