This issue of The Illawarra Population Health Profiler focuses on cancer. In 1996-2000 cancer was the second commonest cause of death in the Illawarra (following cardiovascular disease),accounting for about 29% of all deaths (male 31% and female 27%). This report provides information about the incidence (new cases) of, and mortality (deaths) and survival from, various specific cancer types. For those cancers for which organised mass screening programs are in place (cervical and breast), or being considered (colorectal), screening rates are also reported. Data are reported for the populations of: the Illawarra Health Area; its four Local Government Areas (LGAs); and six sub-areas within the Wollongong LGA. Cancer occurrence and screening rates are also compared to the NSW averages. The focus is on cancer types which are priorities in the Illawarra and NSW, due to their potential for prevention and control, as well as those which have been previously investigated due to local environmental concerns, particularly the haematopoietic cancers such as leukaemia.