This study examines the determinants of multiple states of financial distress by applying a competing-risks model. It investigates the effect of financial ratios, market-based variables and company-specific variables, including company age, size and squared size on three different states of corporate financial distress: active companies; distressed external administration companies; and distressed takeover, merger or acquisition companies. A sample of 1,081 publicly listed Australian non-financial companies over the period 1989 to 2005 using a competing-risks model is used to determine the possible differences in the factors of entering various states of financial distress. It is found that specifically, distressed external administration companies have a higher leverage, lower past excess returns and a larger size; while distressed takeover, merger or acquisition companies have a lower leverage, a higher capital utilisation efficiency and a larger size compared to active companies. Comparing the results from both the single-risk model and the competing-risks model reveals the need to distinguish between financial distress states.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.