This study examines the effect of country-specific Official Development Aid (ODA) and institutional quality on economic growth for Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV) countries from 2002 to 2017. Our results indicate that: First, the impact of ODA from Germany, Japan and France on economic growth is conditional on the level of institutional quality of CLMV countries. The ODA has a negative impact on growth when institutional quality is low. Beyond a threshold of institutional quality, ODA promotes economic growth. Second, the results are robust after controlling for outliers and endogeneity in the model. Third, the further analysis provides evidence that the mitigating effect of institutional quality works through both labour productivity and human capital growth channel. Based on the findings, this study offers some imperative policy recommendations to both donor countries and ODA recipients.