Doctor of Philosophy
Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials
Tai, Zhixin, Development of advanced electrode materials for alkali metal ions batteries, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 2016. http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/4954
Alkali metal ion batteries, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), and potassium-ion batteries (KIBs), have been widely studied as the power sources for a wide range of portable electronic devices, such as cell phones, laptop computers, and digital cameras, since the first commercialization of the IBs. In the last two decades, enormous ongoing efforts have been made to develop the next generation of LIBs, which feature thinner, smaller sizes, lighter weight, flexibility, higher capacity and rate capability, and longer cycle life. Nevertheless, with increasing concerns about the scarcity and distribution of Li natural resources, sodium (Na), as the sixth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (~2.6%), with virtually unlimited Na resources available from sea water, is now attracting serious attention. Although the large ionic size of Na and its low standard electrochemical potential compared with Li result in low power and energy densities and the problems due to the size of the battery, after weighing its pros and cons, the sodium-ion battery has still been studied as a hot topic in recent years to develop cheap and sustainable electrochemical grid-scale energy systems. In searching for alternatives to the lithium ion battery, not only the sodium ion battery, but also magnesium, calcium, aluminium, and potassium ions batteries have been proposed to try to replace the lithium ions battery. In this thesis, however, advanced electrode materials are designed, synthesized, and studied with the aim of developing the next generation of alkali metal ion batteries.