Degree Name

Master of Science (Hons.)


Faculty of Informatics


In 1993 Zheng-Seberry presented a public key cryptosystem that was considered efficient and secure in the sense of indistinguishability of encryptions (IND) against an adaptively chosen ciphertext adversary (CCA2). This thesis shows the Zheng-Seberry scheme is not secure as a CCA2 adversary can break the scheme in the sense of IND. In 1998 Cramer-Shoup presented a scheme that was secure against an IND-CCA2 adversary and whose proof relied only on standard assumptions. This thesis modifies this proof and applies it to a modified version of the El-Gamal scheme. This resulted in a provably secure scheme relying on the Random Oracle (RO) model, which is more efficient than the original Cramer-Shoup scheme. Although the RO model assumption is needed for security of this new El-Gamal variant, it only relies on it in a minimal way.