Dynamic category structure in spatial memory
This study examines bias (constant error) in spatial memory in an effort to determine whether this bias is defined by a dynamic egocentric reference frame that moves with the observer or by an environmentally fixed reference frame. Participants learned the locations of six target objects around them in a room, were blindfolded, and then rotated themselves to face particular response headings. From each response heading, participants used a pointer to indicate the remembered azimuthal locations of the objects. Analyses of the angular pointing errors showed a previously observed pattern of bias. More importantly, it appeared that this pattern of bias was defined relative to and moved with the observer-that is, was egocentric and dynamic. These results were interpreted in the framework of a modified category adjustment model as suggesting the existence of dynamic categorical (nonmetric) spatial codes.