Acute single channel EEG predictors of cognitive function after stroke
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background: Early and accurate identification of factors that predict post-stroke cognitive outcome is important to set realistic targets for rehabilitation and to guide patients and their families accordingly. However, behavioral measures of cognition are difficult to obtain in the acute phase of recovery due to clinical factors (e.g. fatigue) and functional barriers (e.g. language deficits). The aim of the current study was to test whether single channel wireless EEG data obtained acutely following stroke could predict longer-term cognitive function. Methods: Resting state Relative Power (RP) of delta, theta, alpha, beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR), and delta/theta ratio (DTR) were obtained from a single electrode over FP1 in 24 participants within 72 hours of a first-ever stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was administered at 90-days post-stroke. Correlation and regression analyses were completed to identify relationships between 90-day cognitive function and electrophysiological data, neurological status, and demographic characteristics at admission. Results: Four acute qEEG indices demonstrated moderate to high correlations with 90-day MoCA scores: DTR (r = -0.57, p = 0.01), RP theta (r = 0.50, p = 0.01), RP delta (r = -0.47, p = 0.02), and DAR (r = -0.45, p = 0.03). Acute DTR (b = -0.36, p < 0.05) and stroke severity on admission (b = -0.63, p < 0.01) were the best linear combination of predictors of MoCA scores 90-days post-stroke, accounting for 75% of variance. Conclusions: Data generated by a single pre-frontal electrode support the prognostic value of acute DAR, and identify DTR as a potential marker of post-stroke cognitive outcome. Use of single channel recording in an acute clinical setting may provide an efficient and valid predictor of cognitive function after stroke.