Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual representations was compared to a control condition without visual representations among primary school students. The hypothesis that learning with visual representations would result in higher learning performance and lower cognitive load than learning without visual representations was confirmed by the results. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.