The association between the-374T/A polymorphism of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts gene and blood pressure and arterial stiffness is modified by glucose metabolism status: The Hoorn and CoDAM studies
Objectives: Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)-ligand interaction may lead to vascular complications. Genetic variation in RAGE has been shown to alter expression, activity of RAGE or both. We, therefore, investigated whether RAGE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were associated with vascular disease. Methods: Nine tag SNPs that cover the common RAGE gene variation were genotyped in 1291 individuals from two Dutch population-based cohort studies, aged 64.5 ± 8.6 years, with normal glucose metabolism (44%), impaired glucose metabolism (23%) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (33%). We used multiple regression analyses to compare prevalent cardiovascular disease and markers of atherosclerosis, blood pressure and arterial stiffness across genotypes, and examine effect modification by glucose metabolism status. Results: In unstratified analyses, no consistent associations between RAGE SNPs and prevalent cardiovascular disease and markers of atherosclerosis were found. However, the AA genotype of SNP rs1800624 (-374T/A) was consistently associated with lower SBP [-5.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval-10.4 to 0.3)] and DBP [-4.2 (-7.2 to-1.3)] , pulse pressure [-0.8 (-5.0 to 3.4)] as well as with less arterial stiffness [-0.56 SD (-1.04 to-0.09)] in individuals with normal glucose metabolism, but with higher SBP [6.2 (0.9-11.5)], DBP [2.1 (-0.7 to 5.0)] and pulse pressure [4.1 (-0.2 to 8.4)] in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or type 2 diabetes mellitus (P for interaction ≤0.05 in all analyses). Similar results were found for a haplotype that includes the-374A allele. Conclusion: In individuals with normal glucose metabolism, the-374A allele of the RAGE gene is protectively associated with blood pressure and arterial stiffness, whereas in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is adversely associated with these variables. 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.