The Mesoarchean Tiejiashan-Gongchangling potassic granite in the Anshan-Benxi area, North China Craton: Origin by recycling of Paleo- to Eoarchean crust from U-Pb-Nd-Hf-O isotopic studies
Mesoarchean and older potassic granites are important indicators of recycling of ancient continental crust early in Earth's history. This study of integrated whole rock and zircon geochemistry and geochronology reports the age and identification of the source materials of the > 200 km 2 Mesoarchean Tiejiashan-Gongchangling granite in the Anshan-Benxi area, North China Craton, the largest pre-Neoarchean granite domain in the craton. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating on 15 samples indicates the magmatic crystallization of the granites between 2.95 and 3.0 Ga and reveals a superimposed tectonothermal event at ~ 2.91 Ga. The granites are characterized by high SiO 2 and K 2 O, low CaO, FeOt, MgO and TiO 2 with peraluminuous features. They show large variations in (La/Yb) n and strong negative Eu and Ba anomalies and Nb, P and Ti depletions. Whole rock Nd and magmatic zircon Hf isotopic compositions show large variations, but with most having ε Nd (t) and ε Hf (t) values < 0, with t DM (Nd) and t DM (Hf) values varying from 3.3 to 3.9 Ga and 3.3 to 4.0 Ga, respectively. Magmatic zircons without very strong lead loss (discordance ≤ 20%) have δ 18 O values of + 3.14 to + 8.39. 3.3-3.7 Ga xenocrystic zircons occur in some samples. The granite formed as a result of recycling of Paleo- to Eoarchean continental material in an intracontinental environment, with little if any contribution from Mesoarchean mantle sources. The sources could be predominantly unaltered ancient gneisses, together with yet to be identified Paleo- to Eoarchean materials affected by early low temperature alteration (weathered rocks or clastic sediment).