A ca. 2.60 Ga tectono-thermal event in Western Shandong Province, North China Craton from zircon U-Pb-O isotopic evidence: plume or convergent plate boundary process
Voluminous Neoarchean plutonic and supracrustal rocks are well developed in the Western Shandong Province of the North China Craton, which has been divided into a late Neoarchean crustally-derived granite belt, a middle to early Neoarchean ancient rock belt and a late Neoarchean juvenile rock belt. Earlier studies provided reconnaissance evidence for ∼2.60 Ga metamorphism in some areas. This study presents SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and O isotope analysis on nine metamorphosed igneous rock samples (gneissic tonalite, gneissic trondhjemite, gneissic quartz diorite and meta-gabbro) from the ancient rock belt. Magmatic zircons vary in age from 2.74 Ga to 2.60 Ga, whereas metamorphic and anatectic zircons vary in age from 2.63 Ga to 2.59 Ga, with an age peak of 2.61 Ga. In this study, we identified 2.69-2.67 Ga metamorphic zircons for the first time. Most of zircons, whether magmatic or metamorphic, have δ18O values of +4.5‰ to +6.5‰ (V-SMOW). However, the oldest tonalite sample with a protolith age of 2735 Ma has zircons showing low δ18O (V-SMOW) values, particularly in recrystallized domains and overgrowths. This suggests at least in local crustal extension and influx of meteoric water during the evolution of the rocks. Combined with data from earlier studies, we draw the conclusion that the Western Shandong Province experienced a regional tectono-thermal event at ∼2.60 Ga, as a result of high heat flow and crustal extension, perhaps caused by a mantle plume or mantle overturn activity. Therefore we conclude that 2.60 Ga can be regarded the break between early and late Neoarchean crustal accretion. The O isotope study indicates that in some cases, trondhjemitic leucosome was not derived from nearby gneissic tonalite, although they show a close relationship in outcrop.