The effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, and Mn dopants on the performance of hydrothermal synthesized vanadium phosphate catalysts for n-Butane oxidation
Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalysts synthesized via hydrothermal method were introduced with some different dopants, Cr, Ni, Fe, and Mn during the preparation of the precursors, VOHPO4 0.5H2O. All modified precursors were subsequently transformed under reaction conditions to give the active phase, (VO)2P2O7. Several techniques were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the catalysts, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), H 2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), and chemical analysis. The catalytic performance of the catalysts for selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride has been carried out by using a fixed bed microreactor (673 K, gas hourly space velocity [GHSV] = 2,400 hr-1). The results show that the addition of dopants into the VPO catalysts increased the surface area of the catalysts and induced the formation of V5+ phases as shown in XRD and LRS spectra that promoted the catalytic performance. A further water reflux treatment to all the precursors gave catalysts with only (VO)2P2O7 phase. However, the activity and selectivity of these catalysts were reduced markedly.