Title

A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory

RIS ID

64767

Publication Details

Charlton, K. E., Jooste, P. L., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. S. & Ghosh, A. 2013, 'A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory', Nutrition, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 630-634.

Abstract

Objective Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification.

Methods Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d.

Results The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3–196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5–9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804).

Conclusion In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods.

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Link to publisher version (DOI)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.010