Flaked sorghum biscuits increase postprandial GLP-1 and GIP levels and extend subjective satiety in healthy subjects
Scope Sorghum grain components may play a role in mechanisms that protect against development of obesity-related chronic diseases. We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial (40 healthy subjects) using whole grain sorghum flaked biscuits to investigate mechanisms related to satiety. Methods and results Subjects were tested on four occasions after a 12-h fast. At baseline, they consumed 50 grams of one of four treatment meals: white, red, or brown sorghum biscuits or a wheat control. Subjective satiety was measured at 8 time-points over four hours. In a subset of 20 subjects, plasma glucose, insulin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), and ghrelin were measured. Subjects reported significantly lower subjective satiety ratings after consuming wheat compared to sorghum biscuits. Incremental area under the plasma concentration-time curve of postprandial GLP-1, GIP and in males, PYY, were significantly higher (p = 0.018, p = 0.031, p = 0.036, respectively) for sorghum breakfasts compared to wheat. Energy intake at a subsequent meal did not differ between treatments. Conclusions Sorghum whole grain is a promising novel ingredient in foods targeting satiety as an adjunct for weight control. Evidence is now required from randomized controlled trials that aim to examine specific effects on health outcomes from a sorghum-enriched intervention diet.