Gastric cancer stem cells: evidence, potential markers, and clinical implications
Gastric cancer is a significant global health problem. It is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide (Torre et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 65(2):87-108, 2015). Despite advances in treatment, overall prognosis remains poor, due to tumour relapse and metastasis. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes in gastric cancer. The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been proposed to explain the high rate of relapse and subsequent resistance of cancer to current systemic treatments (Vermeulen et al. in Lancet Oncol 13(2):e83-e89, 2012). CSCs have been identified in many solid malignancies, including gastric cancer, and have significant clinical implications, as targeting the CSC population may be essential in preventing the recurrence and spread of a tumour (Dewi et al. in J Gastroenterol 46(10):1145-1157, 2011). This review seeks to summarise the current evidence for CSC in gastric cancer, with an emphasis on candidate CSC markers, clinical implications, and potential therapeutic approaches.