Purpose: To determine the effect of curcumin (as Meriva) on absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), T cell populations and NK cells in patients with Rai stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) over a period of six months. Experimental Design: Twenty-one patients with significant lymphocytosis (>20 x 109 lymphocytes/L) and stage 0/1 CLL were recruited into the study and received oral curcumin 2 grams/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2 monthly intervals for six months for full blood count, leukocyte surface antigens, liver function, serum biochemistry, immunoglobulins, CRP and ESR. A positive biologic response was defined as a reduction in the ALC of more than 20% from pre-treatment levels. Results: Four patients (20%) demonstrated more than 20% decrease in ALC, three of whom had lower ALC at the end of the study as compared to baseline. The decrease in ALC was accompanied by an increase in CD4, CD8 and NK cells. No demonstrable response was seen in seventeen patients (80%) who exhibited stable, fluctuating or increasing ALC during the study. Conclusion: A subgroup of stage 0/1 CLL patients may be responsive to curcumin therapy. The beneficial response appears to be immunomodulated.