Serum interleukin-17 and its relationship to angiogenic factors in multiple myeloma
Background: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a CD4 T-cell-derived mediator of angiogenesis that stimulates vascular endothelial cell migration and regulates the production of a variety of proangiogenic factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Angiogenesis is implicated in the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Methods: We measured serum levels of IL-17, TNF-α, and VEGF, as well as microvessel density (MVD) in 40 untreated MM patients. Results: Levels of IL-17 in the sera of patients with MM were higher than those in matched controls; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Serum levels of both TNF-α and VEGF in MM patients were significantly higher than those in controls (p
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