Hyperplastic polyp of the duodenum: a report of 9 cases with immunohistochemical and molecular findings
Benign serrated polyps are commonly found in the colorectum but have rarely been described in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a series of 9 serrated polyps arising in the duodenum with clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical expression profile of mucins (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6), and molecular analysis for BRAF and KRAS. The polyps were diagnosed as incidental endoscopy findings in 9 different patients, comprising 3 male and 6 female patients, with a mean age of 52.2 years (range, 21-72 years). The second part of the duodenum was the most common site (n = 5), followed by the ampulla (n = 1) and the distal duodenum (n = 1), with the location of the 2 remaining polyps unspecified. Other upper gastrointestinal tract pathology features included Barrett esophagus for 5 patients, Helicobacter gastritis for 1 patient, and mild chronic gastritis for 1 patient. The histologic appearance of the polyps was similar to microvesicular hyperplastic polyp in the colorectum. Immunostaining for mucins showed MUC6 expression in the crypt bases of all polyps, MUC5AC expression in 8 cases (89%), and mucin 2 expression in 6 cases (67%). Molecular testing was successful in 6 polyps, showing BRAF mutation (V600E) in 2 polyps, KRAS mutation in 2 polyps, and no mutation for either gene in 2 polyps. Colonoscopy reports were available for 6 patients, of whom 4 were diagnosed with hyperplastic polyps or sessile serrated polyps in the colorectum. However, no patient met the criteria for serrated polyposis. Although probably rare and of uncertain malignant potential, hyperplastic polyp should be considered in the differential diagnosis of benign duodenal polyp.