Sustainable weight loss requires a shift in eating behaviour maintained over a long time period. Research in this area focuses on dietary patterns based on cuisines that emphasise intakes of common core foods or those that target specific nutrients, such as fat. This review examined the literature to identify evidence on dietary patterns that may be effective for sustained weight loss. Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched for relevant literature, and 14 trials were reviewed. Overall, Mediterranean, vegetarian, and low-fat dietary patterns were associated with sustained weight loss under energy-restricted conditions. Evidence to support the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet for sustained weight loss without an energy deficit was inconsistent. Core foods emphasised in dietary patterns associated with weight loss included fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and olive oil. Further research involving matched behavioural interventions is required to conclusively identify dietary patterns most conducive to sustained weight loss.