This chapter aims to describe the diversity of participatory approaches in relation to social simulations, with a focus on the interactions between the tools and participants. We consider potential interactions at all stages of the modelling process: conceptual design; implementation; use; and simulation outcome analysis. After reviewing and classifying existing approaches and techniques, we describe two case studies with a focus on the integration of various techniques. The first case study deals with fire hazard prevention in southern France, and the second one with groundwater management on the Atoll of Kiribati. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of participatory approaches.
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