Publication Details

Hai, F. Ibney., Yamamoto, K. & Fukushi, K. (2007). Hybrid treatment systems for dye wastewater. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 37 (4), 315-377.


Virtually all the known physico-chemical and biological techniques have been explored for treatment of extremely recalcitrant dye wastewater; none, however, has emerged as a panacea. A single universally applicable end-of-pipe solution appears to be unrealistic, and combination of appropriate techniques is deemed imperative to devise technically and economically feasible options. An in-depth evaluation of wide range of potential hybrid technologies delineated in literature along with plausible analyses of available cost information has been furnished. In addition to underscoring the indispensability of hybrid technologies, this paper also endorses the inclusion of energy and water reuse plan within the treatment scheme, and accordingly proposes a conceptual hybrid dye wastewater treatment system.



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