Publication Details

Schofield, P., Ebrahimi, H., Jones, A., Bateman, G. & Murray, S. R. (2012). An olfactory 'stress test' may detect preclinical Alzheimer's disease. BMC Neurology, 12 (N/A), 1-8.


Background: The olfactory bulb (OB) receives extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain and is affected very early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We speculated that an olfactory ‘stress test’ (OST), targeting the OB, might be used to unmask incipient AD. We investigated if change in olfactory performance following intranasal atropine was associated with several known antecedents or biomarkers of AD. Methods: We measured change in performance on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in the left nostril before (20-items) and after (remaining 20-items) intranasal administration of 1 mg of atropine. We administered cognitive tests, measured hippocampal volume from MRI scans and recorded Apolipoprotein E genotype as indices relevant to underlying AD. Results: In a convenience sample of 56 elderly individuals (14 probable AD, 13 cognitive impairment no dementia, 29 cognitively intact) the change in UPSIT score after atropine (‘atropine effect’ = AE) correlated significantly with demographically scaled episodic memory score (r = 0.57, p



Link to publisher version (DOI)