In vivo beta-cell function at the transition to early non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Impaired insulin secretion occurs at some stage in the development of non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), possibly during impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or early NIDDM. To assess insulin secretion at these critical stages, we measured the first-phase insulin response (to glucose and arginine), maximal secretory capacity, and glucose potentiation slope for insulin secretion in Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance (n = 20), IGT (n = 9), and mild (fasting glucose < 7.8 mmol/L) NIDDM (n = 7). We also measured oral glucose tolerance and insulin action. Subjects with IGT were more insulin-resistant (P < .05) than normals. A wide range of insulin secretion was noted, although as a group, no significant impairment was detected. Subjects with mild NIDDM were similarly insulin-resistant, but they also had impaired insulin secretion. The first-phase response to glucose was markedly reduced in absolute terms (P < .001), but all secretion indices were impaired relative to the degree of insulin resistance (P = .05 to P < .0001). These results suggest that in Pima Indians, impairment of insulin secretion, especially the first-phase response to glucose, is associated with mild NIDDM. Insulin secretion in IGT is variable and, overall, seems intact, although a subtle defect in the first-phase insulin response to glucose could not be ruled out in this study. Glucose sensing for first-phase secretion may be one of the early secretory defects in the progression of glucose intolerance and seems to be critical at the transition from IGT to early NIDDM.
Please refer to publisher version or contact your library.