Locating play: the situated localities of online and handheld gaming in South East Asia
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The production, circulation, and consumption of new digital media technologies in East Asia are differentiated by nation-specific cultural nuances. Gaming provides a case in point. South Korea and Japan are key regional hubs for the development of electronic gaming, yet these two locales proffer distinctively different paradigms for gaming culture. As Larissa Hjorth points out, there is a clear bifurcation of techno-cultural development: Japan pioneered the keitai (mobile) information technology industry and home gaming consoles such as PlayStation 2 (PS2), while South Korea (henceforth Korea) possesses the highest broadband rates in the world and has become a pioneering hub for multiplayer online games and attendant industries, such as esports (electronic sports based on competitive networked gaming).