Transnational humanitarian action and regime complexity: The case of Syria
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Since the outbreak of civil war in Syria in 2011, the international community has faced an unprecedented humanitarian emergency. Beyond the estimated 400,000 dead, the civil war has created 5 million refugees, 6.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs), and over 4 million besieged people. The United Nations (UN) estimates that 13.5 million-more than half of the Syrian population of 21.4 million-require humanitarian assistance.1 The transnational humanitarian community-which includes nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, and state bureaucracies-has sought to mobilize a global response to this crisis.2 The UN appealed for $3.18 billion for assistance within Syria for 2016 alone.3 In focusing on this community, rather than an individual actor, I follow Virginia Haufler's discussion in chapter 3 of transnational actors who have adopted a common frame, in my case to provide humanitarian assistance during conflicts.