Conservation and risk of extinction of marine species
Additional Publication Information
We review the evolution of the activities of both the conservation of biodiversity and the fisheries management governance streams to identify and promote the protection of marine species at risk of extinction, particularly marine fish and invertebrates exploited in commercial fisheries. Attention is focused on the roles of IUCN, CITES, FAO, RFMOs and, to a lesser extent, national entities with the main emphasis being on developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Conflicts in the determination of marine species at risk illustrate policy and management issues where the two governance streams have been interacting directly for nearly 20 years, yet differences of viewpoint and practice remain not only in determining risk, but in agreeing what is needed to manage that risk and who should be responsible. There are consequences for both the protection offered to species considered to be threatened and for opportunities to harvest fish to provide food and livelihoods.