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Many teachers, and I have been one of them, treat listening skills as something that is innate and that can be neither learnt nor taught. That is, as something that students either can or cannot do, and as something that teachers have no control over. However, trial and error in lessons has shown me how, irrespectively of students’ level in the L2, there are certain things that we can teach students to make them better listeners and to help them understand how to improve their (foreign) language comprehension.
The starting point will be preventing our students from being passive listeners, (those who just sit down and receive language input), and instead helping them become active listeners, (those who will listen and use certain tools to process language and to maximise the amount of language they understand).