On 29 September 2008, the Council of the European Union (EU) adopted Council Regulation (EC) No. 1005/2008 establishing a Community system to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fi shing. Essentially, the EU IUU Regulation establishes a framework in which access to EU markets for fi sheries products is partly conditioned by the extent to which a country, area or region of origin is demonstrably or increasingly free of IUU fi shing. Aside from the amendments to US legislation in 2007, the EU IUU Regulation is the only other domestic legislative measure adopted solely to combat IUU fi shing, with four main components: port State measures against third-country vessels, a catch documentation scheme, IUU vessel listing, and listing of non-cooperating States. Th is article analyses the EU IUU Regulation in the context of international fi sheries law, and particularly international eff orts to combat IUU fi shing. It is concluded that the measures outlined in the EU IUU Regulation, despite several ambiguities, are generally consistent with those called for under international fi sheries instruments and measures being implemented by regional fi sheries management organisations.