Geographic Information Systems (GISs), spatial statistics in
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a networked collection of hardware and software tools that recognizes georeferencing in the data and features the georeferencing in database management, data analysis, and visualization of results (principally maps) from the analysis. This combination of geography and computer science has been known as geographic information science. Spatial statistics in GIS has grown in importance, however, spatial databases in a GIS can be very large. It may be that, without some form of dimension reduction, only the most simple statistical methodologies will scale up.