One hundred years ago, in 1893, Jacques Hadamard  found square matrices of orders 12 and 20, with entries ±1, which had all their rows (and columns) pairwise orthogonal. These matrices, X = (Xij), satisfied the equality of the following inequality,
|detX|2 ≤ ∏ ∑ |xij|2,
and so had maximal determinant among matrices with entries ±1. Hadamard actually asked the question of finding the maximal determinant of matrices with entries on the unit disc, but his name has become associated with the question concerning real matrices.