This article pioneers a study into the influence of the high-Z component of nanoparticles on the efficacy of radioprotection some nanoparticles offer to exposed cells irradiated with X-rays. We reveal a significant decrease in the radioprotection efficacy for cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles and irradiated with 10 MV and 150 kVp X-rays. In addition, analysis of the 150 kVp survival curve data indicates a change in radiation quality, becoming more lethal for irradiated cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles. We attribute the change in efficacy to an increase in high linear energy transfer Auger electron production at 150 kVp which counterbalances the CeO2 nanoparticle radioprotection capability and locally changes the radiation quality. This study highlights an interesting phenomenon that must be considered if radiation protection drugs for use in radiotherapy are developed based on CeO2 nanoparticles.