Overcoming original antigenic sin to generate new CD8 T cell IFN-y responses in an antigen-experienced host
The failure to mount effective immunity to virus variants in a previously virus-infected host is known as original antigenic sin. We have previously shown that prior immunity to a virus capsid protein inhibits induction by immunization of an IFN-?? CD8+ T cell response to an epitope linked to the capsid protein. We now demonstrate that capsid protein-primed CD4+ T cells secrete IL-10 in response to capsid protein presented by dendritic cells, and deviate CD8+ T cells responding to a linked MHC class I-restricted epitope to reduce IFN-?? production. Neutralizing IL-10 while delivering further linked epitope, either in vitro or in vivo, restores induction by immunization of an Ag-specific IFN-?? response to the epitope. This finding demonstrates a strategy for overcoming inhibition of MHC class I epitopes upon immunization of a host already primed to Ag, which may facilitate immunotherapy for chronic viral infection or cancer. Copyright ?? 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.