Practice nurses and the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke: a literature review to promote evidence-based practice. Part I: rationale, review methods effectiveness of practice nurses and smoking cessation
This paper is the first in a series of two which together describe a review of current literature conducted to identify a range of research-based activities which practice nurses might employ in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke.The paper first describes the rationale for the review, methods and boundaries of the review and provides an overview of the research into the general effectiveness of practice nurses in the field of CVD and stroke prevention.
Risk factors for CVD and stroke are then discussed, with particular emphasis on: - smoking and CVD risk -smoking cessation and CVD risk.
Specific primary care interventions aimed at helping clients to stop smoking are then examined under the following headings: -GPs and smoking cessation brief advice brief advice combined with nicotine substitution - Practice nurses and smoking cessation.
The paper concludes with a list of research-based activities for practice nurses in relation to smoking cessation. Interventions relating to hypertension, raised blood cholesterol, lack of exercise and obesity are considered in a subsequent paper.