Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?
Aims: To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with type1 diabetes across varying international contexts. Methods: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, across 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate. Questionnaires were administered recording demographic data, details of insulin regimens, severe hypoglycaemic events and number of episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Adolescents completed the parental involvement scale from the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOLY-SF) and the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire (DFRQ). Parents completed the DFRQ and a Parental Burden of Diabetes score. A capillary blood sample was drawn from each patient and analyzed centrally for HbA1c. Results: 2062 adolescents completed a questionnaire, with 2036 providing a blood sample. 1994 parents also completed a questionnaire. Family demographic factors that were associated with metabolic outcomes included, parents living together (t=4.1;p