Systematic review and meta-analysis of soy products consumption in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Clinical trials have reported the lipid-lowering effect of consuming soy products, and epidemiological studies have shown that soy intake is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically review the effects of soy products consumption on serum lipid profiles and glycaemic control in T2DM patients. Potential papers were initially searched from PubMed (1966 to 2010) and Cochrane Library (1984 to 2010) without language limitations. All randomized controlled trials were included in which soy products supplementation was the only intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Weighted mean effect size was calculated for net changes in serum lipids and fasting glucose concentrations using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Eight studies were included according to the criteria. The intake of soy products was associated with a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (by 0.42 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.70, -0.14; p<0.001), triacylglycerol (by 0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.07; p<0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (by 0.30 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.60, -0.00; p<0.001), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.06; p=0.89). There were no significant effects on fasting glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin. It can be concluded that intake of soy and soy products has beneficial effects in T2DM patients in relation to serum lipids.