Electrophysiological measures as potential biomarkers in Huntington's disease: review and future directions
Neuroimaging is fundamental to identifying quantifiable and objective biomarkers in symptomatic and pre-diagnostic HuntingtonÃÂ¿s disease (HD). Despite an increase of research efforts, the challenge remains to find reliable biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity that can be used to track the functional decline over time and test efficacy of therapeutic intervention. While many recent studies have focused on neuroimaging techniques based on brain hemodynamic activity, comparatively less have utilized electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs). This review summarises and re-evaluates the key electroencephalographical findings over the last two decades in HD, with the goal to identify promising candidate biomarkers that could be sensitive in tracking disease progression.