Residential energy consumption is now an important component of total energy consumption and its related emissions. In addition,this consumption has significant potential for growth in both developed and developing countries, as average incomes increase, and domestic appliance numbers rise. Reduction in this energy use may be achieved both through conservation measures, and through increased efficiency in its use. This paper focuses on energy efficiency in appliances-those many devices through which household energy is consumed. The policy instruments available to promote the uptake of more efficient devices, and issues associated with their use, are reviewed, drawing on developed country experiences to date. The instruments available are more limited than in other energy applications, and largely comprise information dissemination, forms of subsidy, and regulation. The last is commonly used in the form of minimum energy performance standards. Assessment of the three instrument types and issues with their use suggests that regulation is the most important measure-albeit with several qualifications on the manner of its use.