Hanham, Jose and McCormick, John, 2009, Group work in schools with close friends and acquaintances: linking self-processes with group processes, Learning and Instruction, 19(3), 214-227.
The present study investigated the relationships between key self-processes, namely independent vs. interdependent self-construal and self-efficacy, with students' attitudes toward working in groups comprised friends and groups comprised acquaintances. The sample consisted of 563 students (280 of Year 10 and 283 of Year 11). Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Interdependent self-construal was found to be both directly and indirectly predictive of students' attitudes toward cooperating with their friends and acquaintances. There was evidence to suggest a "flow on" effect from being self-efficacious for working with friends to being self-efficacious for working with acquaintances.