In the last decade, supply chain management has played an important role to lead companies today to succeed in their business goals, to gain competitive advantages, and to improve firm/business performance. As the result of that, there has been extensive studying in a popular topic of strategic supply chain management in order to improve firm or business performance as well as along supply chain performance under the real situation. This is because in current business world, uncertain factors are crucial in both supply and demand sides to influence many companies to continuously adapt proper supply chain management in their nature of business. However, there has been no attempt to study the impact of uncertain factors that are supply, demand, process, competitor's action, planning and control, government policy, and climate conditions on particular agri-food supply chain that is Thai rice supply chain in a conceptual framework. This study is a critical analysis of literature to develop the conceptual framework that is proposed to analyse the relationship among uncertain factors, rice supply chain practices, and rice supply chain performance as well as to discuss research methodology.