The way we think about nature and the environment, structures the way we manage it and thus has material outcomes. Conceptions of culture and nature as separate entities, symbolized most profoundly in Western thought by the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences, have had many implications for environmental management. For example, natural heritage and cultural heritage are frequently managed by different agencies, or different parts of a single agency, although they may be part of the same landscape. The strongest efforts at the protection of nature have been aimed 'out there', in bounded, pristine spaces such as protected areas, national parks and wilderness areas. A corollary of this is that, in contrast, there has been a denial of nature in cities and other human spaces.